AKKORDLOHN BERECHNUNG PDF
Akkordlohn . Zeitlohn, Akkordlohn, Prämienlohn: Ausgestaltung sowie Vor-. Arbeitnehmer beanstandet nicht berücksichtigte Prämien bei Berechnung des. Beim Akkordlohn wird die tatsächlich erbrachte Leistung entgeltet. wird eingesetzt, wenn die Berechnung genauer Akkordsätze unwirtschaftlich ist. Für den. ЪНЁЁЕЁ jìjiàn göngzi Akkordlohn m Sg. ìtÍÈFIMï jijiàn Kalkulation f-en, Berechnung f-en Ъ’ГЁК jìsuàn chi Rechenschieben m – Ъ’ГЁ’ЁЁЁ jìsuàn cuòwù.
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Both ways of conceiving the relation between labor and its product interpret a paradox in the employment relation.
The amount of their weekly pay depended on whether they wove their piece on the warp all the way to the end exactly on pay day or, alternatively, had a small swatch left to do on a large piece which could therefore not be finished and credited until the next pay period.
Weaving, by contrast, consisted of an interaction between the worker, unreliable tools, quirky raw materials, and weather, to turn out a large and changing array of patterns. Despite the inaccuracies of the ratio, German accountants used it to distribute production costs.
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But in Germany the expression of production in terms of. For the workers’ own comments, see Die Textilarbeiter-ZeitungApril 9, Classical political economy, that garrulous companion to the development of capitalism in the two centuries that preceded our own, poses a riddle that anyone would have recognized had they held the means of answering it.
Monthly Review Press,pp. Yorkshire Factory TimesJanuary 18,and September 12,p. We do not thereby privilege utili. The divergent principles of the piece-rate systems could not have influenced the weavers’ incentive to work. Hypotheses that reduce social practice to a “rational” adjustment to the economic environment are neither more fundamental nor more parsimonious than arguments that accept the constitutive role of culture.
Employers thought it was not their business to “interfere” in the supervision of employees’ assistants. The final deduction might occur many weeks after the weaver had been paid for the piece.
Hans Mangoldt, a pioneer in the development of the “theory of akkogdlohn firm,” gave a succinct definition of the wage that highlighted the disposition berechnujg a potential. Comparative study of procedures on the factory shop floor reveals that the micro-practices of production were constituted as signs, whether or not they served as the objects of a system of verbal representations.
In Yeadon the weavers used a “Ready Reckoner” device, copies of which were distributed by the union, to verify their piece rates. Huddersfield Daily ExaminerMay 8, For an example of a manager who converted to piece rates assoon as the weavers were brechnung, consult taped interview with Will Bruce, bornof Bentham Village.
The senses have therefore become directly in their practice theoreticians. For example, Foucault’s well-known Discipline and Punish portrays the betrayal of Enlightenment judicial ideals in the eighteenth century by minute disciplinary procedures that were refined and extended without recourse to discursive expressions or representation and without regard for their symbolic form.
Did refunds accrue retroactively to weavers for cloth which, contrary to earlier expectations, managed to clear the market?
The Fabrication of Labor “d0e”
As early as the s, the tables posted in Germany for remunerating weavers bore the heading “Wage Tariff” or “Wage Table,” even when the employees were hand weavers.
As the business counsel George Wood put it, “We may define Time-Work as ‘A Contract to sell all the produce of labour in a certain time.
In sum, the fine for damages in Britain compensated the owner for market losses suffered upon disposing of the workers’ labor product. Eine Klausel eines Arbeitsvertrags, die im Widerspruch zu der entsprechenden Bestimmung des allgemeinverbindlichen Tarifvertrags steht, ist nichtig, und an ihre Stelle tritt die Bestimmung des allgemeinverbindlichen Tarifvertrags.
When questioned about their attitude toward their “boss,” piecers described, not the factory owner, but the spinner. Thus, from the German view, there was less motivation to register the difference in cloth densities carefully; it was only necessary to capture the time lost in changing the warp and the gross differences akkordlohhn yarn types.
Reise- Unterbringungs- und Verpflegungskosten akkorelohn werden.
Meaning of “Prämienlohn” in the German dictionary
Verlagsgesellschaft deutscher Konsumvereine,p. The unobtrusive means of training bodies and shaping their motions in schools, the military, and work proliferated in darkness and silence. They became attuned to the amkordlohn of their labor power and used the efficiency ratio as an index of exploitation.
Since British factory proprietors thought of themselves as buying labor as it was embodied in the product, their accounting techniques credited funds only to the loom from which the product was delivered, not to the weaver who executed the labor activity. On these grounds, Max Weber, in his study of a weaving shed, rejected wages as a measure of labor effort.
As industrial sociologists from Germany have long taken care to emphasize, a piece-rate scale can use the product as a convenient akkordlohnn for measuring the workers’ action and berechnubg not accept the product as the object of payment itself.
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Robert Torrens, who was preoccupied with the consequences of mechanization in akkord,ohn age of the factory, replicated exactly Smith’s depiction of the exchange of materialized labor among autonomous producers. In truth, weaving was not a uniform activity. The businessmen’s forum, the Textile Mercuryconcluded that over the long term, the “diligence and punctuality of textile workers may be said certainly to have improved, and it is to their credit that their current lapses from perfection still shew favorably against those recorded in some trades.
Prescriptive its rates were not—only the principles by which it operated. Fining for bad output ranked as one of the concerns uppermost in textile workers’ minds.
A manager wrote in the businessmen’s forum, the Textile Manufacturer of Manchester, that “the best of workpeople require a certain amount of restraint, but the fining system is a slovenly and careless method berechnunb administering it. In the areas around Aachen and in Berlin, for example, it appeared in artisanal workshops for handweavers during the s, before these shops gave way to large factories with power looms.
The British pay scales codified the product as the result of labor but did not identify the value of the product by modeling it on the performance of the weaving. Braunsche Hofbuchdruckerei,p.
If accountants knew the firm’s ratios of efficiency for diverse kinds of cloth, they could estimate how long it would take to weave a particular fabric on a loom and would know what level of general expenses or conversion expenses the cloth should bear.
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The British weavers could not have perceived the anomalies in their payment per weft thread from the experience of work. Staatsarchiv Weimar, Landesregierung Greiz, a Rep.
Perhaps British textile firms allowed weavers to send substitutes as a means of attracting gerechnung when labor was scarce.
In Germany, the fine disciplined the workers for the careless expenditure of their labor power. In the discussion which follows, bear in mind that “picks per inch” always refers to cloth density, not to its length. The predicaments in these two simplified ways of gauging output—length of cloth or number of weft threads inserted—disclose the unique characteristics of the weaving activity and of its product. But here one notes that the same facts expressed in terms of how long it took to weave.
In a movement which became a standard symbol, understood immediately by the weaver, upon completion of the piece berwchnung boss simply yanked the shuttles from the loom.