Home > Archive > Consciencism: Philosophy and Ideology for De-Colonization by Kwame Nkrumah. Author: Kwame Nkrumah. Publication date: Nkrumaism (sometimes Consciencism) is an African socialist political ideology based on the thinking and writing of Kwame Nkrumah. Nkrumah, a pan-Africanist . CONSCIENCISM Philosophy and Ideology for Decolonisation Kwame Nkrumah Dedicated to The Members of my Philosophy Club, without whose.

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It has not been consciencissm purpose to argue that all the early precursors of our modern philosophers in trying to modify or support a modification of society conceived this in terms of egalitarianism.

To transgress these limits was in their eyes to indulge greed, and so to hazard their nkrumxh in this life and the divine disfavour in the after life. His principle of justice was one which called for social change, could not see an egalitarian society as one in which everything was permanently as it was, in which inequalities remained undisturbed.

Consciencism: philosophy and ideology for decolonisation – Kwame Nkrumah – Google Books

And this whole arrangement is sanctified by the principle of Pre-established Harmony. But if the gods were to be explanatory devices for accounting for phenomena, then there was nothing to prevent the most vicious inequalities from arising in society. I was introduced to Plato, Aristotle, Descartes, Kant, Hegel, Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, Marx and other immortals, to whom Nmrumah should like to refer as the university philosophers. Women were not included under the provisions of the democratic constitution.

Heraclitus makes this strife of opposites indispensable to growth and creation both in nature and in society. And yet, to a certain extent, all this must be deemed to be correct.

And that is why he says that he thinks, therefore he exists. But how can a continuing slave be said to aim at anything? It recognizes and accepts differences among men, but allows them to make a difference only at the functional nkrmah. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.

Consciencism Philosophy and Ideology for de-Colonization

The egalitarianism which early Greek philosophy introduced could be formulated in terms of individualism. Want to Read saving…. There, God is first converted to Adam through his living breath, and second to Jesus Christ through a mystic incarnation.

The power of the aristocratic priesthood was based on the belief that those who committed certain crimes infringed the sacred moral order of society, and that they needed to expiate their crimes and be absolved if consciencixm whole community was not to be thrown into jeopardy.


In its first aspect, the explanation offers an account of the origin of the cosmic raw material.

Consciencism: Philosophy and Ideology for Decolonization

It was felt by the critics of materialism that there were certain nmrumah undisclosed conceptual difficulties to prevent the emergence of purpose and consciousness This kind of objection has been met in the discussion of categorial conversion. This is a result of the academic treatment which they are given. It is through a leap from one plane to another that new kinds are produced and the emergence of mind from matter attained.

The concept of an object, let alone the concept of the same object, cannot be properly formulated in idealism. Its cessation would be comparable to a cut at any point in the series of negative integers. That is, cosciencism Thales, everything was water or could be reduced to water; for Berkeley, everything was a spirit or idea or was reducible to spirit and ideas.

In Nkrumah’s idealized view, pre-colonial African societies did not have individual ownership or class structures, but instead were organized largely around the value of what Nkrumah called “communalism. Here, matter would be whatever has mass and is perpetually active; and, in its manifestation, matter would be co-extensive with the universe.

In its second aspect, it is an account of the extent of the cosmic raw material. And what is perfect cannot the change for the better. Conscoencism Greeks, mindful of the massive constricting power which the priesthood could exert if it formed a class, shunned the oriental example, discouraged life-priests, and often fixed the length of time for which one was a priest or priestess.

It must be said that Plato was profoundly upset by the turn which Athenian democracy had taken.

And yet these systems did aim at providing a philosophical account of the world in the circumstances and conditions of their time.

It seems to me, however, that neutral monism is merely crypto-dualism or crypto-pluralism.

Kwame Nkrumah, Consciencism Philosophy and Ideology for de-Colonization – PhilPapers

Indeed, during one particularly good olive harvest, Thales astutely cornered the available olive presses in Miletus and subsequently hired them out at nkrumaah rates. The colonized African mkrumah, whose roots in consiencism own society are systematically starved of sustenance, is introduced to Greek and Roman history, the cradle history of modern Europe, and he is encouraged to treat this portion of the story of man together with the subsequent history of Europe as the only worthwhile portion.


But, for this, it is unnecessary that the initial basic raw material should be infinite in extent, for however meagre it may be, it has been infused with the phoenix power of self-regeneration, in its being said to-repeat itself.

The second revolution consisted in his belief that the unity of nature consisted not in its being, but in its materiality.

If one kind of event is regularly and invariably followed by consxiencism kind, empiricism accepts the first kind of event as explaining the second kind. For this purpose, pantheism is but a kind of atheism. By I the divergence had hardened seriously, and only a revolution could re-shuffle French thought and deal it out anew.

The difference is said to be epistemological, not ontological. There he saw a beautiful opportunity of producing a ruler tailor political ideas. In this way, he introduced the idea of a finite social evolution. Economic concerns, without which the clergy themselves could not have survived, were required by them to be confined within the limits of mkrumah sustenance. In constructionism, one has a picture how those concepts which are proper to derivative categories might be formed, using as raw materials concepts which are proper to the primary category.

Let me suggest a parallel with formal logic.

Indeed, once Anaxagoras had emphasized socialistic responsibility of each for all and all for each, the next step was to emphasize the intrinsic worth of the individual.

Nor had philosophy in this departed from its early character.

He has however been often misunderstood when he stresses that there are differences among men. It is a quack pronoun. Here, the idealist holds that we only nkrumag of the external world through perception; and, if matter be held to be constitutive of the external world, then we only know of matter through perception. In particular he could not forgive a system which made it possible for his nkrumh, Socrates, to be executed.

In the technical society, this would inevitably breed an economic disproportion, and it would head society straight towards capitalism.

The earliest philosophers, rebelling against the social conscienicsm which a theological explanation of natural phenomena encouraged, went to the root of the matter by introducing a different kind of explanation for social and natural phenomena.