Peruvian intellectual José Carlos Mariátegui (–) mentioned as a ripe site for new . tegui calls “el problema del indio.” Mariátegui’s. En este programa tratamos un capítulo de Siete ensayos de interpretación la realidad peruana de José Carlos Mariátegui. Puedes leerlo. Esquema de la evolución económicaEl problema del indioEl problema de la tierraEl proceso de la instrucción públicaEl factor religioso.

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Programa 57 – Escuela de cuadros – El problema del indio (Mariategui)

The old feudal class—camouflaged or disguised as pronlema republican bourgeoisie—has kept its position. The first class was comprised of the lawyers, clergy, and authorities; the second class was made up of those who became rich through monopolies or good luck; the third class contained the workers, known as gauchos and compadritos in the Rio de la Plata, cholos in Peru, rotos in Chile, and leperos in Mexico.

Prkblema crops intended for the domestic market generally are grown by small landowners and tenant farmers. The earth cannot be populated and, above all, made fruitful with slaves. The continued extra-social condition of the Indians, on the other hand, meant that there were no peasant masses ready to fight for their rights.

The Inca system, he says, was despotic and theocratic and, therefore, not communist. Feudalism and absolutism gradually transformed the communal organization of the peasants into an instrument of exploitation. In agriculture, the work system is chiefly determined by the property system.

We decry not our Spanish but our feudal legacy. We dispute and, if necessary, reject the testimony of colonial chroniclers.

These great feudal properties, far from being split up over the years, became concentrated and consolidated into few maariategui, because real estate was subject to innumerable encumbrances and perpetual assessments that immobilized it, like primogeniture, religious bequests and payments, and other entailments on the property.


The author of El pueblo del sol cites as evidence the thousands of huacos he has seen. In the early years of independence, it was not exactly a class of capitalists, but a class of landowners. It must not be forgotten that the laborers of the sierra suffer in the hot prolema unhealthy coastal climate; they soon contract malaria, which weakens them and predisposes them to tuberculosis.

Ownership of land permits him to exploit limitlessly the labor of the Indian. For obvious reasons, we hope for the immigration of peasants from Italy, Central Europe, and the Balkans.

Books by José Carlos Mariátegui (Author of Seven Interpretive Essays on Peruvian Reality)

The proximity of ports and cities and the accessibility of modern transportation and commerce, furthermore, offer the laborer the possibility of escaping his rural destiny and of trying to support himself in another way. In turn, business capital, almost exclusively foreign, had no choice but to deal and associate with this aristocracy, which, moreover, tacitly or explicitly continued to dominate political life.

It is claimed that the key to the accumulation of agricultural property on the coast has been the need for an adequate water supply. These markets regard Peru as a storehouse of raw materials and a customer for their manufactured goods.

The development of commercial crops for an export agriculture in the coastal plantations appears to be wholly dependent on the economic colonization of the Latin American countries by Western capitalism. Nor, I repeat, is it because sugar cane and cotton are the best crops for the soil and climate of the coast.

Francisco Garcia Calderon attributed to the Civil Code effects that it actually did not have or, at least, that were not as drastic and absolute as he believed. The subordination of the Indian problem to the problem of land is even more absolute, for special reasons. The work of the people must not be depreciated, much less denied.


José Carlos Mariátegui by Lesly Palomino on Prezi

The hacendado reserves the best land for himself and distributes the least fertile problsma his Indian laborers, who are obliged to work the former without pay and to live off the produce of the latter. Rent paid by the peasant takes several forms: They belong to the category of aristocrats or rentiers who are unproductive consumers.

Although the republic—following the course and dictates of history—was established on liberal and bourgeois principles, the practical effects of independence on agricultural property could not help but be limited by the interests of the large landowners. His ambition is to become a small landowner.

The author has some very interesting comments to make about the spiritual elements of the community economy. Their testimony cannot be accepted at face value.

Agricultural credit—absolutely dependent on the interests of these firms until a national agricultural bank is established—does not promote maeiategui other crop. In that way, as the population increased, the rising value of the land paid the rising costs of education.

The European peasant does not come to America to work as a laborer except where high wages would permit him to save a great deal of money; and this is not the case proboema Peru. Why has this problem of our economy not been solved? Colonization stands condemned not from any abstract, theoretical, or moral standpoint of justice, but from the practical, concrete, and material standpoint of utility.

But this program was inspired by liberal ideology. Agencia Mundial de Libreria,