Folliculogenesis and oogenesis are important events preceding the release of the mature oocyte (ovulation), as well as for in vitro oocyte maturation, which is. Drosophila oogenesis is an excellent system for the study of developmental cell biology. Active areas of research include stem cell. Spermatogenesis and Oogenesis. Pgs. (Campbell). Spermatogenesis. Production of sperm. Continuous and prolific; Each ejaculation.

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The specification and morphogenesis of dorsal appendages are mediated by patterning cues in specific follicle cell groups [ 36 ]. Similarly, wild-type gene product may or may not, depending on oogenseis ability to diffuse move from a genetically wild-type cell to a homozygous mutant cell.

Moderate expression in germline stage 8 and later.

Author manuscript; available in PMC Jun Neuromuscular organization and aminergic modulation of contractions in the Drosophila ovary. Microtubules Preservation and efficient immunolabeling of the microtubule cytoskeleton can be challenging. Male and female Drosophila junral stem cells: Humana Press Inc; The probability of mosaic expression levels should be taken into consideration when interpreting results of an experiment involving Gal4-mediated expression.

Preservation and efficient immunolabeling of the microtubule cytoskeleton can be challenging. F-actin Visualizing the F-actin distribution in fixed ovaries is best accomplished using fluorescently labeled phalloidin following fixation with formaldehyde [ 87 ]. Each of the ovarioles produces approximately two eggs per day, or over 60 eggs from a young, well-fed female [ 6 ]. Hudson 1 and Lynn Cooley 1, 2, 3.

Tramtrack69 regulates epithelial tube expansion in the Drosophila ovary through Paxillin, Dynamin, and the homeobox protein Mirror. The analysis specific cell populations isolated from ovaries is greatly aided by the ability to dissociate ovarian cells and perform fluorescence-activated cell sorting FACS.


Zygotic lethal mutations with maternal effect phenotypes in Drosophila melanogaster. We thank Peter McLean for contributions to Figure 1and members of the Cooley lab for comments on the manuscript.

Please note that during the production process errors may be discovered which could affect the content, and all legal disclaimers that apply to the journal pertain. Sample preparation for lightsheet microscopy often involves embedding the tissue in a gel — e.

Systematic gain-of-function genetics in Drosophila.

Quantitative analysis of gene function in the Drosophila embryo. Zhu C-H, Xie T.

Margolis J, Spradling A. Nurse cells can also display different levels of expression [ 43 ].

The original UASt vectors include P element ends for transformation and work very well in the somatic cells of the ovary; however, UASt-mediated expression is extremely poor in germline cells. Davis I, Parton RM. These approaches are discussed in detail in reviews from the Davis and Gavis labs [ 2526 ], and procedures for microinjecting dissected egg chambers are included in Parton et al [ ]. Gal4 in the Drosophila female germline. The selection relies on the dominant female-sterile mutation ovo D1which when heterozygous results in an early arrest of germline development.

Other marking systems While the FLP-DFS system is an efficient means of generating late-stage germline clones, ooogenesis is not useful for identifying germline clones during early oogenesis or for identifying clones in somatic cells.

Methods for studying oogenesis

Detection of cell death in Drosophila. Experiments using such approaches led to important conclusions regarding sex determination and intercellular communication in Drosophila. Mosaic analysis While female-sterile screens succeeded in isolating many genes that are critical for female fertility, the majority of genes that function in oogenesis are essential genes for which loss of function mutations do not produce a female-sterile phenotype.


However, hairpin RNAs do not effectively silence genes in the female germline, juranl their usefulness in studying oogenesis. Alternatively, microtubules can be visualized using a transgene that expresses a fluorescent protein fused to either tubulin or a microtubule binding protein Table 4.

All cells including follicle stem cells and escort cells. Lin H, Spradling AC.

Methods for studying oogenesis

Cold Spring Harb Protoc. In addition to formaldehyde-based fixatives, other alternative fixations can be used to preserve antigens or cellular structures that are not detectable using aldehyde fixation. A new wave of oogennesis imaging. As a service to our customers we are providing this early version of the manuscript.

The expression profile of purified Drosophila germline stem cells. When recombination is induced in germ line stem cells or their progenitors, germ cells will be generated that are homozygous for the mutation of interest and, importantly, lack the ovo D1 mutation. The border cells participate in forming the micropyle through which a sperm reaches the oocyte.

Examination of egg chamber assembly carried out in many laboratories has yielded a huge amount of information on stem cell and stem cell niche biology jurna, 78 ] and the origins of polarity [ 9 ].